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补交作业了,今天补上民族英雄张苍水这一章

(2018-10-19 10:06:24)
标签:

历史

民族

时评

文化

杂谈

分类: 时事

920号,我在文章里介绍了位于杭州西湖边的岳飞、于谦墓,有好几位网友急了,跟我说——
“还有张苍水墓!”
“张煌言!张煌言别忘了,他甚至更重要!”

 

张煌言,字玄著,号苍水,鄞县(今浙江宁波)人,汉族,生于仕宦之家,崇祯时期的举人,南明兵部尚书,著名抗清英雄。

 补交作业了,今天补上民族英雄张苍水这一章


他和岳飞、于谦,并称“西湖三杰”,不光是因为他们的墓穴相近,都在西湖边,更是因为他们的忠贞与气节。

 

清后期诗人吴鼎元在《南屏山谒张忠烈公墓》诗中赞道:“西泠桥边岳武穆 ,八盘岭下于忠肃 ,一片孤忠两地同 ,与公鼎峙成三足。”

 

事实上,与岳飞、于谦相比,张煌言名声不显,是西湖三杰中,最容易被人忽视的那一个。

 

说到原因,一是因为南明不像南宋和明朝那般受人重视,南明的君君臣臣,除了郑成功由于收复台湾而广为人知外,其他的名声都不大,就算是李定国,也是因为电视剧中的乌龙造型,被网友们抗议了,才稍微红点起来;二是张煌言的主要功绩,是联络十三家农民军,与郑成功配合,亲率部队连下安徽二十余城,坚持抗清斗争近二十年,这同保卫北京、保住大明江山社稷的于谦,以及直捣黄龙的岳飞相比,没有那么辉煌罢了。

 

张煌言拥护的是鲁王。

 

当时由于崇祯殉国后,没有一个直系血脉的继承人,南明的政局相当混乱——鲁王朱以海监国于浙东,唐王朱聿键立隆武帝号于闽南,桂王朱由榔立永历帝号于西南,这和宋室南迁,仍能延续百年的南宋不同。

 

南宋之所以有凝聚力,是因为康王赵构是宋徽宗的亲儿子,血脉正统。南宋的大臣、军队、百姓,对赵构高度认同,反观南明,由于都是皇室宗亲,没有崇祯的嫡系血脉,造成了南明皇帝的权威性受到挑战,内部争斗不断。

 

等康熙继位后,随着桂王与李定国的前后殉国,鲁王、郑成功等人的相继病死,南明的反清事业受到沉重打击,在全国范围内,还有力量高举反清大旗的,只剩下闽浙沿海和台湾了。

 

这时候,张煌言所率领的义军,就是清廷的主要隐患了。

 

清廷也是想方设法,通过各种渠道,多次招降张煌言。但张煌言不为所动,誓死效忠大势已去的南明王朝。

 

康熙三年(1664年)三月,兵败后只带着数名随从的张煌言,隐居在南田悬岙岛(今浙江象山南),被贪图赏金的普陀和尚,告发到清官府。

 

七月十七日凌晨,清兵出其不意抓住了张煌言等人,在被押宁波的船上,浙江总督赵延臣再次劝他归顺清廷。张煌言说:“我父死不能葬,国亡不能救,死有余罪,今日之事,速死而已,何必多言。”

 

九月七日,张煌言在杭州遇害,赴刑场时,他从容镇定,遥望凤凰山一带,叹道:“大好江山,可惜沦于腥膻!”

 

张煌言死后,葬在杭州南屏山北麓荔枝峰下,为掩人耳目,墓碑上只写“王先生墓”。

补交作业了,今天补上民族英雄张苍水这一章

 

乾隆时期,为了安抚汉人知识分子,清廷开始表彰张煌言了,不仅对张煌言加谥“忠烈”,将其牌位入“祀忠义祠”,可以享受定期供祭,清国史馆还为他立传。

 

张煌言墓从此不用遮遮掩掩,得以正名。

 

张煌言墓在苏堤南端,太子湾公园附近,离于谦墓不远。这一路下来的景点有雷峰塔(白娘子被法海镇压的那座塔)、净慈寺(济公古井运木的那座寺,里面有南屏晚钟)、苏堤、太子湾公园、花港观鱼等。

补交作业了,今天补上民族英雄张苍水这一章

 

大家有兴趣不妨去转转,顺带几个景点一起玩,不需要绕远路

 

扩展阅读:《写给来杭州有兴趣参观岳飞、于谦墓的网友》

 

 

猫猫滴微信公众号:ggxmme,欢迎大家关注。

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