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新华网 正文
人工智能成为医生好帮手
2018-10-21 08:29:09 来源: 人民日报
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  近年来,人工智能变得越来越“聪明”,并开始在许多领域发挥独特的作用。例如,一家人工智能公司与英国摩尔菲尔兹眼科医院近日共同发布研究成果,称人工智能算法在诊断眼部疾病的精准度上超越了人类医生。

  这款人工智能算法主要通过分析患者眼部的3D成像——光学相干断层扫描(近年迅速发展的一项成像技术,简称OCT)图像,诊断与老龄化致盲有关的黄斑部退化、青光眼和糖尿病视网膜病变等。目前,这一算法已能检测出超过50种威胁视力的眼疾,并能给出适合患者的治疗方案,甚至可以“优先考虑”最迫切需要治疗的病人,错误率仅为5.5%,远低于8位人类眼科专家6.7%—24.1%的“误诊率”。以往,不同的医生对同样的3D成像会有不同的解读,这款人工智能的高精确度相当于25个医学专家从不同角度会诊的结果。

  更重要的是,这款医用人工智能可以向人类“解释”自己的决策依据。具体来说,在“阅读”扫描患者眼部后,人工智能第一步将OCT分解成数个区域,并进行标注,这时产生的原始数据人类还难以理解;第二步分析各个区域的成像,然后用另一种人类可以理解的分类识别系统,来寻找可能存在的病灶迹象,这时的数据对于人类而言具有解释性和可理解性,避免了以往人工智能算法“暗箱操作”的问题,有利于医生和病人了解其决策过程,对人工智能建立信任感。

  一名再资深的医生,其职业生涯中所见的病例也是有限的。人工智能却凭借其读取和筛选信息的卓越能力,可以接触到庞大的病例资料和诊断数据。据称,IBM开发的智能医疗诊断系统,在短短17秒内能阅读3000多本医学专著、4万篇论文,这可能是人类穷其一生都无法完成的。

  虽然说人工智能的诊断精准度优于人类医生,但现在就预言人工智能将取代医生这个职业还为时过早。一名医生能否让患者最大程度地减轻病痛,不仅取决于其经验多少,对患者的态度以及细微的观察问诊,也起着决定性作用。所谓“望闻问切”,说的就是问诊的重要性。深度的医患互动,恐怕是眼下的人工智能还不能达到的。

  此外,人工智能的一大特点就是“知其然不知其所以然”。虽然新算法在解释性方面实现了很大突破,但并不意味着人工智能就获得了“深层智能”。人工智能可以读取海量数据,并能通过这些数据给出有价值的诊断结果,但对于诊疗过程背后的病理药理并没有深刻认知。

  因此,在可预见的未来,更可能的是,人类医生仍将是为患者诊病的主力。成熟的、可被解释的人工智能技术,则让医生如虎添翼,使诊疗的过程更准确、更高效、更值得信赖。(强 薇)

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